HSE Library e-resources
HSE Library is particularly focused on electronic acquisitions. We have subscribed and purchased access to a variety of online resources. While using Electronic Library Resources (ELR) you should follow specified Procedures. ERL database includes:
- new!New trials provided by Russian Foundation of Basic Research as part of the national subscription selection: foreign journals on physical sciences, social sciences and humanities, medicine and international law collections
Royal Society of London journals: Philosophical Transactions (A and B), Proceedings of the Royal Society (A and B), Biology Letters, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, Notes and Records and others. The newest issues and the complete archive are available.
Temporary access is granted till 30.11.2020
Multidisciplinary publishing house with the outstanding collection in physics, mathematics and other physical sciences. There more than 120 publications available, including the most notable ones like “Fractals”, “International Journal of Modern Physics” (A–E), “Modern Physics Letters” (A–B), “Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences”. The newest issues and archives as deep as the 2000s are available.
Temporary access is granted till 15.11.2020
An additional trial to De Gruyter journals. There are 347 journals in various fields and 214 of these journals are in English. The most notable journals include “Theoretical Linguistics”, “Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine”, “Fractional Calculus and Applied Analysis”, “Journal of Numerical Mathematics”, “Nanophotonics”.
Temporary access is granted till 30.11.2020
International law journals published by Brill including “Review of Central and East European Law”, “Climate Law”, “Journal of the History of International Law” and others. There are 60 publications in total. The newest issues and the few years of the archives are available.
Temporary access is granted till 14.11.2020
Journals "Lippincott Williams & Wilkins" (Wolters Kluwer imprint) are available on the Ovid platform in such fields as medicine, neurobiology, pharmacology and health care. 120 jounals on medicine, neurobiology, pharmacology, health care. There are 120 publications and the most notable ones are “Neurology”, “Hypertension”, “Circulation”, “Critical Care Medicine” and others. The newest issues and the archive as deep as the 2015 are available.
Temporary access is granted till 13.11.2020
- International Periodical Databases
Our University library offers a subscription service to foreign e-journals, a service not offered elsewhere in Russia. We are subscribed electronically to more than 18000 full-text periodicals and serial publications. At the HSE, you have access to the following periodical databases:
A digital library of publications in economics, business, sociology, political science, statistics, mathematics, health, physics, philosophy, antiquities studies, linguistics, literature, and others. Journals are available from the first published issues up to 2012-2014.
More than 1700 journals from Elsevier in all subject areas, including economics, business, social sciences, psychology, mathematics, computer science, engineering, physics, etc.
Coverage varies; issues dating from 2000 to the present are available in most cases; deep archives dating back to 1994 or first issues are also available for many publications.
Annual Reviews publishes 40 review series, considered among the most authoritative and quoted in their respective fields. Their titles begin with Annual Review of .... Those of particular relevance to the HSE include the Annual Review of Sociology, the Annual Review of Political Science, the Annual Review of Psychology, the Annual Review of Anthropology, and, published since 2009, the Annual Review of Economics, the Annual Review of Financial Economics, and the Annual Review of Resource Economics.
AEA Journals of the American Economic Association; the best known among them are the American Economic Review, the Journal of Economic Literature, and the Journal of Economic Perspectives. This is the only database where current issues of AEA journals are available without embargo.
Publications in economics, business, management, sociology, political science, computer science, and other fields; a total of more than 16000 journals, documents, and business analysis on markets and companies, etc, are available. Powered by EBSCO, the library provides access to Business Source Complete, Academic Search Premier, EconLit, SocIndex with FullText, Political Science Complete, Business Book Summaries, and other databases.
Archives dating back to the first issue are available for certain publications. Some journals are available after a six-month embargo.
Publications in economics, business, management, sociology, political science, law, computer science, and other fields; a total of more than 4000 full-text journals are available.
Coverage from 1971 to the present (varies from publication to publication).
Dissertations are also available (see below).
A multidisciplinary database with more than 9000 full-text journals in economics, business, sociology, law, computer science, and other fields. Coverage from the 1980s/1990s to the present (varies from publication to publication).
More than 120 current and dozens of archival (discontinued) journals from Emerald (formerly MCB University Press). Emerald is considered a market leader in professional business and management journals, such as the well-known European Journal of Marketing and The Total Quality Management Magazine. Most journals are available from the first issue to the most recent issue, without embargo.
NB! A new section with more than 250 cases - Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies. The case studies focus on decision-making and business development practices in emerging markets. All cases are peer-reviewed and edited.
The Library of the one of the most authorized non-profit organizations working in the field of new technologies, — Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). More than 200 journals, over 1500 conference proceedings, more than 3400 technology standards. Documents themes: computer technology, telecommunications, electronics, electrical engineering, etc. The archive is up to 1988 (for a range of publications — deeper).
Full texts of more than 1500 journals from Wiley, in virtually all disciplines, including economics and business, computer science, mathematics, psychology, sociology, humanities, law, and others. Publications include the Econometrica, Strategic Management Journal, the Kyklos, Journal of Applied Econometrics, Economic Geography, Sociologia Ruralis, Human Resource Management, Information Systems Journal, Mind & Language. Publications are available from 1997 to the present. Access to deep archives back to the first issue of each journal is now available for publications in sociology and education.
Journals from Taylor & Francis, including Routledge. A total of more than 1300 publications in economics, business, social sciences, education, mathematics, law, psychology, etc. Examples include: Regional Studies, Economy and Society, the International Journal of Human Resource Management, and the Journal of Mathematical Sociology. All journals are available in full text, no embargo. Coverage from the 1990s to the present, varies from publication to publication.
More than 500 journals from SAGE in the social sciences, the humanities, engineering and health, including sociology, psychology, economics, management, education, and materials science. Journals include: the Sociology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Organization Studies, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, the Journal of Conflict Resolution, Politics & Society, and others. Journals are available in full text, without embargo, with a complete archive.
More than 1200 journals from Springer. Subjects include mathematics, physics, engineering, medicine, and others. Also available more than 200 publications in economics, sociology, and law, including the well-known Economic Theory, Public Choice, Theory and Society, and the Journal of Business Ethics. Coverage from the first issue to the present.
More than 200 journals from the Oxford University Press in a full range of subjects (approx. 100 publications in the social sciences and humanities). Coverage from the first issue (full archive) to the present.
Contains about 350 journals from Cambridge University Press in a full range of subjects (approx. 110 publications in the social sciences and humanities). Coverage from the first issue (full archive) to the present.
Publications from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), one of the world's most prestigious organizations in informatics and computer science. More than 45 academic and practice-oriented journals, papers from more than 100 conferences, newsletters, etc. Publications on programming, computer science, telecommunications, information systems management, and others, with a full archive.
Journals of the American Psychological Association. More than 70 journals (list) from a leading publisher of academic literature in psychology. All journals are available as full text, no embargo, with a full archive up to the first issue.
An online archive of electronic journals from DigiZeitschriften with more than 170 leading German periodicals, in particular in the social sciences, the humanities, and mathematics. Journals in economics, history, sociology, law, art history, and other fields are available. All publications are included from the very first issue, but there is a substantial embargo on the most recent issues (usually 2 to 5 years).
American Chemical Society offers nineteen journals and one reference guide. Get access to «Journal of the American Chemical Society», «Chemical Reviews», «Journal of Organic Chemistry», «Nano Letters», «Macromolecules», «Biochemistry» and many other journals. Issues dating from 1996 to the present are available. Also a guide to academic writing «The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information» is available..
Seventeen journals from the American Institute of Physics (AIP), one of the World's leading publishers in the physical sciences. Available publications include Applied Physics Letters, the Journal of Applied Physics, the Journal of Mathematical Physics, and others. Journals are available with full archives up to the present.
Thirteen journals of the American Physical Community, including best known "Physical Review" and "Physical Review Letters". Journals are available with full archives up to the present.
More than 50 journals published by the Institute of Physics (IOP). Most journals are available from the first published issue to the present. Available publications include Reports on Progress in Physics, Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, the Journal of Physics A-G, and others.
Nature Publishing Group (NPG) publishes the journal Nature, perhaps the most renowned interdisciplinary scientific journal with one of the highest impact factors. Available issues from 1869 up to now and access to 100 other journals of this Publishing Group.
A leading multidisciplinary scientific journal. The world-famous popular science publication from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) provides reviews of the latest developments in the natural and applied sciences, news, and commentary.
Coverage from the first issue to the present.
Zentralblatt MATH (zbMATH) is the world’s most comprehensive and longest-running abstracting and reviewing service in pure and applied mathematics. It is edited by the European Mathematical Society (EMS), the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities and FIZ Karlsruhe.
The zbMATH database contains about 4 million bibliographic entries with reviews or abstracts currently drawn from about 3,000 journals and book series, and 180,000 books.
The coverage starts in the 18th century and is complete from 1868 to the present. No full-text items here; once you find what you need, you can search other HSE subscription resources for the full text.
One of the most authoritative databases of abstracts of mathematics publications supported by the American Mathematical Society (AMS). More than 1800 mathematics journals are indexed, plus entries on 85000 monographs and 300000 papers from academic conferences. More than 3 million items in total, of which 2,2 million are abstracted/reviewed.
No full-text items here; once you find what you need, you can search other HSE subscription resources for the full text.
Coverage from the early 1900s to the present.
- new!Special resources for Korean studies scholars
Two leading databases for researches and Eastern scholars (the subscription is provided by the School of Asian Studies of the Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs):
FMore than 2000 full-text South Korean multi-disciplinary journals: life sciences, social sciences, engineering sciences, medical sciences, agriculture. Newest issues are available for most journals, many of them are with complete archives including the very first issues.
Books, reference materials, dictionaries, encyclopedias, source materials, databases, multimedia materials on history, geography, literature, art and philosophy of Korea.
- Special resources for chemists
Please note that in 2020 Ministry of Education and Science and Russian Foundation of Basic Research has limited the number of organizations subscribed to resources on chemistry. As a result, Higher School of Economics does not have the subscription provided by the Ministry to such journals as Royal Society of Chemistry and Thieme, and to reference database SciFinder. American Chemical Society issues are still available. The information on that has been moved to the general list of foreign periodicals databases (see the tab above).
- Russian Periodicals
The HSE Library provides access to full-text Russian periodicals covering about 2000 sources:
Full texts of more than 100 academic journals in Russian or from Russian publishers, some in the public domain, others available by HSE subscription. Subjects vary; most publications are available from 1999-2003 up to the present. Journals include 10 series of the well-known Referativny Zhurnal in the social sciences and the humanities published by INION (Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences), and the journals Economic Strategies, POLIS, Algebra and Logic, the Bulletin of St. Petersburg State University: Management, the Economics of Education, the Sociology of Education, Lex Russica, and others.
Online access from all computers on the HSE network and from any other location (password-protected)
INION Journals (NB! Register at the eLIBRARY.RU website for access)
25 journals from Grebennikov―a leading Russian publisher of marketing, management, and finance literature. Titles include Marketing and Market Research, Management Today, Motivation and Remuneration, Corporate Finance Management, Personnel Development Management, etc.
Russian journals in social sciences and humanities in full text without embargo, including Economics and Mathematical Methods, Voprosy Ekonomiki (Economical Matters), Obshestvennye nauki i sovremennost (Social Sciences Today), Mirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia (World Economy and International Relations), Voprosy Istorii (Historical matters) (full archive), Voprosy Literatury (Literature Matters) (full archive), Novyi Mir (New World), Voprosy Statistiki (Statistical Matters), Vestnik MGU (Moscow University Bulletin) (all issues) and others, a total more than 100 sources.
Also available collections of about 100 issues of "Statisticheskie izdaniya Rossii I stran SNG" (Statistical Journals of Russia and CIS states).
Over 4.000 media sources from regions of Russia, CIS and other countries: newspapers, journals, news agencies, internet editions, TV-channels and radio stations. Platform includes analytical system that allows conducting mediastatistical data analysis.
NB! Login VSHE.1 Password 1.
Online access from all computers on the HSE network and from any other location (password-protected)
new! In addition to basic access to Public.ru full text issues of 14 popular journals and newspapers including Forbes, Expert, Kommersant daily, Russkiy reporter, Nauka i Zhizn, Business journal, Snob and etc. are available. Follow the link and fill in your @hse.ru @edu.hse.ru e-mail address. You will receive confirmation code to get the access. You can also enjoy mobile app and download it for Android or iOS.
- ProQuest Dissertations & Theses: Bibliography and Full Texts
ProQuest Dissertations & Theses provides bibliographic descriptions of more than two million doctoral and master's theses, mostly from North America and Europe. Each doctoral dissertation published since 1980 and each master's dissertation published since 1988 includes an abstract written by the author. The database offers full text for most of the dissertations added after 1996 (more than 2,5 million dissertations).
Online access from all computers on the HSE network and from any other location (password-protected) (NB! Dissertations are accessed using the normal ProQuest interface, but this link will take you to the 'dissertations only' search, without ProQuest journal databases)
- Citation Databases
The HSE Library presents four of the best-known multidisciplinary abstracting and citation databases:
A system of informational resources from Clarivate Analytics (formerly, Thomson Reuters, formerly, the Institute for Scientific Information, ISI). Their core databases are the Science/Social Sciences/Arts & Humanities Citation Index. They do not provide full text of the articles, but include a list of all bibliographic references found in each publication, so that a complete bibliography on the topic of interest can be promptly generated. In addition, the Journal Citation Reports and Essential Science Indicators analytical modules can be accessed by clicking the Additional Resources tab.
A major bibliographic database containing abstracts and citations, Scopus covers more than 18000 academic publications from all spheres of knowledge, including over 5000 publications in economics, the social sciences, and psychology. Since 1996, a list of references has been provided for each article, so you can find all papers cited in the publication and all papers citing the publication, making it possible to promptly generate a full bibliography related to your question, from the first classical publications to the most recent research.
Analytical tool "superstructure" over the Web of Science database. Allows intercomparing bibliometric indicators of the various organizations and authors (scholars). One of the main advantages of InCites — calculation of the normalized citation index, which allows evaluating the look of a particular object under study (author, organization, country, region) on the background of worldwide average among those who are engaged in research in the same field.
Access through personal registration on Web of Science platform (the registration link is offered).
Analytical "superstructure" over the Scopus database. Allows comparing (benchmarking) set of bibliometric indicators of the various organizations.
Access through personal registration on the platform ScienceDirect / Scopus (the registration link is offered). Attention! In case of remote access failure re-open in the same browser the link provided here. Correct address bar begins so: proxylibrary.hse.ru:2111
- World Bank Resources
As a result of cooperation with NEICON the HSE Library subscribes to three resources created and maintained by the World Bank—two statistical databases and a collection of electronic publications produced under the auspices of the World Bank:
A compilation of statistical data on more than 850 development indicators. Time series are presented starting from 1960 for 209 countries. The database covers economic, social, and financial indicators, as well as data on natural resources and the environment. The graphical representation of retrieved data is a useful feature.
Data on external debt and its repayment, foreign investment and capital flows for 135 developing countries, covering the period from 1970 to 2015 (including the countries' commitments). The graphical representation of retrieved data is a useful feature.
Access to full-text books, reports, statistical compilations, and preprints produced by the World Bank―more than 8000 documents. New publications are posted on the site as soon as they appear in print.
- OECD Resources
OECD iLibrary is a database of all the information resources belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), including books, periodicals, preprints, and specific statistical packages.
- IMF Resources
Access to the entire IMF platform, including books, analytical publications, reports, periodicals, and IMF statistics. Statistical resources include International Financial Statistics (key macroeconomic indicators), Balance of Payments Statistics, Direction of Trade Statistics, and Government Finance Statistics.
- Passport (ex-GMID)
A database of statistics, market reports, and analytical reviews, (ex-the Global Market Information Database) is maintained by Euromonitor, a global leader in strategy research for the consumer market. The resource contains statistics by country (demography, economy); analytical reports on markets (more than 4500 reports on consumer, industrial, and service markets); 3000 profiles of leading companies operating in the consumer market; lifestyle indicators and analysis on users in different countries, etc.
Factiva is a business information and research tool owned by the Dow Jones Company; it provides access to more than 2000 newspapers (including The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, The Guardian, Le Monde, Kommersant, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, and Vedomosti), more than 3000 journals (including The Economist, Time, Forbes, Fortune, Newsweek, Expert, and Profile), and more than 500 news feeds (Dow Jones, Reuters, The Associated Press, and Interfax). Factiva also monitors more than 4000 leading news and business websites and publishes transcripts of more than 200 broadcast news channels. It has collected reports on 1,7 million companies and more than 1,3 million persons. Prompt delivery of share prices (with a delay of 15–20 minutes), stock ticker feeds, and exchange rates.
- HSE Economic Journal
A quarterly academic journal published since 1997. Contributors include Evgeny Yasin, A. Yakovlev, G. Kantorovich, Michel Camdessus, and others. Published in Russian and English. The HSE Economic Journal is on the list of academic journals recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission (VAK) for publication of candidacy and doctoral theses abstracts. Access to issues published since 1997, with a six-month publisher’s embargo on full texts.
- eBook Databases
In addition to journals, the HSE also offers subscriptions to databases of e-books and book series—a total of more than 170000 full-text titles:
More than 170000 full-text books on various subjects, with a special emphasis on the social sciences, economics, and business. Books on applied computer science, political science, sociology, literature, and philology are also available. Most books have been published over the past seven to nine years by major academic publishers, such as Cambridge University Press, John Wiley & Sons, Palgrave MacMillan, Routledge, Elsevier Science, and others.
More than 550 books are on platform Elgar Online. HSE Library acquired all the publications from 1994 till 2019 (economy, law, sociology, business/management) — more than 3600 titles. Monographs and books of reference (including illustrious Research Handbooks) are basically represented as well as encyclopedias and statistical compilations.
Four collections of full-text books on business, finance, information technology, and engineering, a total of more than 29000 publications. Books by leading publishers (such as Elsevier, John Wiley & Sons, IBM Press, Cisco Press, OUP, CUP, etc) are available.
Full texts of all books from Springer published between 2005 and 2019, plus some of the more recent publications; more than 125000 volumes in total. All subject areas are represented, eg economics (more than 7000 books), business and management (more than 9500 books), engineering (more than 12500 books), mathematics (more than 6600 books), computer science (more than 23000 books), law (more than 2000 books), and others.
Book series from Emerald (formerly produced by Elsevier) on business, management, and economics (80 series, more than 650 volumes), and social sciences (40 series, more than 300 volumes). The titles of books in the series usually begin with "Advances in..." or "Research in...". New volumes in the series continue to be published.
Some 12000 books from Oxford University Press in the following thematic blocks: economics/finance, business and management, political science, law, mathematics, psychology, philosophy, religion, and history. All books are available in full text, and more than half have been published over the past six years.
More than 600 handbooks from the Oxford Handbooks series provide full coverage of each topic, including its history, conceptual apparatus, emerging problems, ongoing debate, and future outlook. They can be compared to an encyclopedic entry expanded into a book. Handbooks on business and management, political science, philosophy, and religion are available. Complete list of handbooks.
More than 6400 volumes of full-text books from Elsevier, including finance (more than 150 books), business and management (more than 500 books), computer science (more than 870 books), mathematics (more than 1020 books), and psychology (more than 360 books). Also available are 29 handbooks on various branches of economics and encyclopedias of psychology, the social sciences, education, and archaeology.
Multidisciplinary book database (electronic library system) Lan’. Our subscription includes Russian publications on physics, mathematics, engineering sciences, IT, social sciences (law, economics, business studies, psychology, educational science), linguistics, journalism and art history. The publishers are Fizmatlit; Mann, Ivanov and Ferber; Flinta, Lan’, Aspekt Press and others. Nearly 10 000 books are available. Please note that we do not have access to the whole platform. Available publications are marked with the blue icon shown in the search results.
We have access to more than 2000 full-text law books on this platform. Please note that we do not have access to the whole platform. We have access to the law collection, the most comprehensive and established collection this publisher offers.
More than 10000 full-text books in Russian, mostly textbooks, manuals, and monographs from Infra-M Publisher, mainly in the social sciences (law, economics, management, and sociology), and the humanities. The resource allows full texts to be viewed in the original layout and requires registration to copy limited text fragments.If you have accessed this resource from our website, you already have the complete access to this subscription. You do not need any additional registrations, authorizations or keys to read it.
More than 4000 textbooks, manuals, lecture courses etc. from Russian publishing house "Yurait". Study materials are both for bachelors and masters and comprise wide range of disciplines. Books on economics, law, business and psychology compose the broadest part.
Online access from all computers on the HSE network and from any other location (password-protected)
(NB! Access for unlimited numbers of users however not more than two readers can work with each individual document.)
New online-platform from Alpina Publishers, a leading publishers of business books. More than 600 Russian-language books on management, marketing, business, finance, politics, law, etc, are available as full text. Many publications are translations of Western originals.
Multidisciplinary book database BOOK.ru. Russian publications on social sciences and engineering disciplines published by KnoRus, Yustitsiya, Ru-Science and others. Nearly 10 000 publications are available, but we do not have access to the whole platform.
The core of this resource consists of books published by Piter and BHV Petersburg. On top of that, our patrons can access the collection of HSE Publishing House. This is the multidisciplinary database, its core value is established through books on software and hardware, physicomathematical sciences, humanities, economics and management.
- Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
The authoritative New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2nd edition). Contains over 3000 entries written by more than 1500 leading economists. The print version is published in eight volumes.
NB! The publication has been moved to the Springer platform. For the time being, we are keeping the direct link to the dictionary, but in the future you will have to search for it on the new platform.
Oxford Reference Online Premium is a collection of more than 220 Oxford encyclopedias, reference books, and dictionaries across a broad range of subjects, including A Dictionary of Economics (3400 entries, 2003), A Dictionary of Business and Management (6700 entries, 2006), A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (5000 entries, 2005), Oxford Dictionary of Law (4000 entries, 2006), A Dictionary of Sociology (2500 entries, 2005), A Dictionary of Psychology (11000 entries, 2006). Also available are The Concise Oxford English Dictionary and a number of other language dictionaries and reference books on topics such as the internet, computer science, history, literature, medicine, political science, mathematics, statistics, etc.
Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is perhaps the most authoritative dictionary of the English language, providing information on the meaning, pronunciation, origin, and history of more than 500000 words (its printed edition contains 20 volumes). Word usage is illustrated by 2,5 million quotations from English-language sources. The electronic version of the dictionary is continuously updated, with more than 1000 new and revised entries added on a quarterly basis.
- Resources for therapists (psychology)
Counseling and Psychotherapy Transcripts
Two volumes of «Counseling and Psychotherapy Transcripts» database on Alexander Street Press with transcripts of real life psychological counselling and treatment sessions. First volume includes personal stories of patients, handbooks and encyclopedias. Second volume consists of recent sessions from 2012 and later. There are transcripts of 6000 sessions in total.
- Resources for Historians and Art Critics
The ARTstor Digital Library is a resource that provides over 1,5 million digital images from outstanding international museums, photographers, libraries, scholars, photo archives, artists, and artists' estates. The digital images include architecture and historical monuments; decorative art; murals; portraits of artists, writers, actors, and fashion designers; fragments of ancient books and manuscripts; sheet music; maps, etc. All images are available in high resolution for viewing small details, and certain items can be viewed in virtual, 360-degree panoramas.
Oxford Art Online is the access point for two major resources. Grove Art Online is one of the most famous encyclopedias of the fine arts; its online content is regularly updated and reviewed by the world's leading art experts. Currently, it contains more than 45000 entries and 6000 images, plus selected image links to external resources. The Benezit Dictionary of Artists contains some 170000 biographies of artists, sculptors, illustrators, etc. Additionally, three smaller publications are available: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms, Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, and The Oxford Companion to Western Art.
One of the world's leading patent databases, Orbit.com (formerly known as QPAT), provides access to abstracts and full texts of patents issued by more than 75 international patent offices (including USPTO, WIPO, EPO, etc).
Have you spotted a typo?
Highlight it, click Ctrl+Enter and send us a message. Thank you for your help!
To be used only for spelling or punctuation mistakes.